Local chicken is increasingly forced away by the growth of the city. Even so, this can be prevented if the maintenance system isimproved and the genetic reproduction ability as well as production are improved. Improvement of this maintenance system would indeed increase production costs. With their limited capital, the condition is certainly an obstacle for the farmers. "Because semi-intensive maintenance is always followed by improvement of the cage and feed with the 60% additional cost and intensive maintenance conducted equivalent to 100% additional cost," says Prof. Dr. Ir. Jafendi Hasoloan Sidalolog, at the Senate Hall (3/3) when inaugurated as Professor of Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM).
According to Jafendi Hasoloan, if the additional costs were not counterbalanced by the production’s increase of egg and meat, these will cause losses to farmers. Through traditional means, the farmers spend only a very small maintenance costs. "Even for the cost of cages, feed, and management are almost non-existent because the chicken feeds itself so it can provide greater benefits," said the man born Pematangsiantar, 26 October 1947. Jafendi explains the traditionally breeding of the chicken is characterized by a very simple breeding way in which the chicken is freed in the yard with feed derived from the remains of food in the kitchen, hence the production is low. However, the local chicken breeding has now undergone many improvements, especially environmental factors, including the cage, feed, and management so that egg production can be increased.
Up until now, according to Jafendi, little research has been conducted on the genetic nature of production, such as the nature of the brood, age of sexual maturity, intensity, and persistence of production as well as the search period. "Whereas this genetic trait could be addressed through the appropriate and targeted breeding and selection programs. The value of growth genetic trait and low production of local chicken’s eggs can be seen from the high variability of 20-30%," he said.
The spread of local chickens in Indonesia is even in each area and some of them have their own excellent local chicken, like the merawang chicken in South Sumatra, nunukan and tukong in Kalimantan, as well as black kedu, white kedu, and cemani in Central Java. Then, there are pelung, sentul, wareng, and jantur chickens in West Java, kalosi and tolaki in Sulawesi, as well as ayunai chicken in Papua. Beyond that, Indonesia has also developed chicken from abroad, such as gold and silver arab chicken, which is the development of arab chicken. "In addition, there are still local chickens that have special trait, such as legund chicken and walik chicken," the husband of dr. Widji Lestariati, and father of two children explained .
In a speech titled Breeding as a Means of Local Chicken Conservation and Development, Jafendi Hasoloan said that traditional breeding is only able to produce eggs approximately 60 eggs per year, with 20 weeks of age body weight reached 1.2 kg. Meanwhile, through the semi-intensive and intensive breeding it will be able to increase egg production up to about 150 eggs per year and 1.75 kg of weight at the age of 20 weeks.