After proclaiming the Independence Day, one of the programs which was conducted by Indonesian government was the establishing universities to reach the ideal goal of the proclamation that is to educate the nation. Therefore, on 19 December 1949, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) which located in Yogyakarta was established. UGM was built by merging several private and state high schools which have existed in Yogyakarta and Klaten.
The early government of the Republic of Indonesia had also realized that Indonesia has rich forest resources and must be supported by human resources from professional education background. Until 1949, the profession education of forestry was only at the secondary level called SMKA (Sekolah Menengah Kehutanan Atas) which formerly, in Dutch Indies era, was called MBS or SMKA. It would take 2 years to study in this College of Forestry. The institution would be raised by Dutch forestry scholars who were still working for Indonesian Government.
Because the education in this College of Forestry was emphasized more on employee upgrading course, the institution was impermanent. Seemingly, the government immediately realized that developing high education of forestry would result a better quality if it was handed by a university. Therefore, by an approach to UGM, in 1951/1952 Forestry Division on the Faculty of Agriculture UGM was inaugurated in a Senate Open Meeting which was led by the President of Universitas Gadjah Mada at that moment, Prof. Dr. Sardjito. Ever since then, the name of the Faculty of Agriculture was changed into the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry.
The Faculty of Agriculture was built by several graduated lecturers from Landbow Hogescholl Wageningen (LWH) such as the late Prof. Iso Reksohadiprojo and the late Prof. Ir.Haryono Danusastro, while Forestry Division was raised by College of Forestry scholars, as mentioned previously, who all lived in Bogor. The names of the Forestry lectures were Prof. Ir. PKM Steuf, Prof. Ir. C.Gartner, Prof. Ir. EHP Juta, Prof. Ir. F.Versteegh, Prof. Ir. AH Verkuyl, Prof. Ir. J. Becking and Dipl. Ing. Hollerworger. Because the same program about the education of forestry was made in Universitas Indonesia in Bogor branch institution, these lectures also taught there, which later became IPB (Institut Pertanian Bogor),
The names of the first year of Forestry Division were Koesniobari, Soediarto, RIS Pramoedibyo, Widayat Eddy Pranoto, M. Soebagyo, Simatoepang, Soeyono and Moch. Fadil. These first year students graduated and got the title “Ir” in 1957. At that time, the prestige of title “Ir” in society was high. Thus, after graduated, they immediately got high positions in forestry bureau easily.
Since there were many scholarships offered from the government to forestry students, a lot of High School graduates were interested in becoming forestry colleges in the following years. The number of students in 1952/1953 was greater than the previous year. There were some 1952/1953 graduates who devoted themselves in their alma mater and became prominent figures, such as Prof. Dr. Soenardi Prawirohatmodjo, Prof. Dr. Ir. Oemi Hani'in Suseno, the late Ir. Haryanto Yoedodibroto, M.Sc., the late Ir. Moch. Yusuf, and the late Ir. Pardiyan.
In 1953/54, more students enrolled the Forestry Division Univesitas Gadjah Mada. The graduates of the year who became lecturers were Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Sulthoni, M.Sc., Dr. Ir. Setyono Sastrosoemarto, and Ir. Imam Abdulrachman. This graduates were special because many of them who worked in forestry bureau, now the Forestry Department, reached the top positions, such as Ir. Djamaludin Suryohadikusumo (the Minister of Forestry, the former Director General of Forest Factory, Ir. Soedjono Soeryo (the former Secretary General of the Department of Forestry), Ir. Wartono Kadri (the former Director General RRL and the Chief of Research and Development Board).
After the year 1953/1954, the number of students in Forestry Division decreased, but there were model alumni who made the alma mater proud, such as lr Soetisno Wartaputra (a student of the year 1954/55, the former Director General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation) and Ir. Soemarsono M (a student of the year, the former Managing Director PT INHUTANI II and the former Director General Forest Factory).
The alumni from the year of 1955/1956 who reached the top achievements were Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Soemitro (the former of the Faculty Dean for 3 periods) and Prof. Dr. Ir. Soekotjo (the former of the Rector of Universitas Bengkulu and the former of the Director of SEAMEO BIOTROP). Regarding those achievements, the education of forestry in UGM proved a proud success. Regrettably, in 1957, those Dutch lectures had to leave Indonesia because of the New Guinea (now Papua) conflict. Therefore, there was a great shortage of lecturers so that lecture programs were distracted. As a consequence, in 1958/1959, only Kukuh Susanto Dewobroto enrolled the Forestry Division UGM. From 1959/1960, the number of the students started to increase again, and so did the following years.
The Early Development of the Lecturers
When the Dutch lecturers left this country, there were many senior students who were appointed to be assistants. Later, they became the figures who broadened the name of the Faculty of Forestry UGM. Beside seniors, several Forestry Bureau officials were also appointed as honorary lecturers. Among those lecturers, there was Ir. Soedarwono Hardjosoediro, who was at that time a Head of Forest Mapping Section IV in Yogyakarta. This personage was an alumnus of IPB Forestry Department, graduated in 1955, but had ever studied in the Faculty of agriculture UGM, up to propaedeutic level of study in the same year as RIS Pramoedibyo. Because at that time UGM had not had a Department of Forestry yet, Soedarwono moved to Bogor, while RIS Pramoedibyo stayed in Yogya to wait for the opening ceremony of the Forestry Department, whose news had emerged.
For some reasons, Ir. Soedarwono then chose to work in UGM, resigned from the Forestry Bureau. Hence, Ir. Soedarwono became an elder of the Faculty of Forestry UGM, the first Dean as well as the first Professor, later on. Prof. Ir. Soedarwono then raised the Faculty of Forestry UGM together with the previously mentioned senior students who were graduated as Ph.D Candidate. They were Prof. Dr. Soenardi Prawiroharmodjo, Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Sumitro, Prof. Dr. Ir. Achmad Sulthoni MSc, Prof. Dr. Ir. Oemi Hani'in Soeseno, Dr. Ir. Setyono Sastrosoemarto, Ir. Imam Abdulrachman, the late Ir. Moch. Yusuf, Prof. Dr. Ir. Soekotjo, the late Ir. Haryanto Yoedodibroto M.Sc., the late Ir. Soedardjo, and the late Ir. Pardiyan. Several lecturers who later on chose to work in Forestry Bureau were Ir. Soediarto (year of 1950), Ir. RIS Pramoedibyo (year of 1950), Ir. M. Soebagyo (year of 1951), Ir. Soehardjo (year of 1952), Ir. Djamaludin Suryohadikusumo (year of 1953), Ir. Ag Sutanto (year of 1953), Ir. Susilo Mislan (year of 1957), and many more. Besides, there were honorary lecturers who had important roles, such as the late Ir. Apandi Mangoendikoro (an alumnus of IPB), Ir. Andang Trihadi (year of 1951), Soekiman Atmosoedarjo, Ir. RIS Pramudibyo, Ir Djamaludin Suryohadikusurno and many other.
The Development of the Education System
The education system that was run in the early development of UGM was not as organized as today. Some people said the system was a “free system”. Because of the deceitfulness of the lecturers, the lectures for certain subjects were held like contractor projects that would be finished in couple days. This happened because there were flying lectures who lived in Jakarta or Bogor. Examinations were not always held simultaneously. When a student was ready to take the test, (s)/he could see the lecture to decide the time of the exam. There were more verbal examinations held rather than the written test. Often, the questions of the test were dilated, even were out of the context of the lecture. It depended on the actual issue around the Forestry Bureau or the students’ answers of the first questions.
In 1962, UGM applied a new education system, which was known as”semester system”. In this new system, lectures were well scheduled for 4 months and ended with an organized classical final examination. For each of the subject, the lecture was given once a week. Minor tests were held beside the major tests. The period of the lectures were distinguished into the preparation level (propaedeutic study), Bacaloreat level (Baccalaureate/Bachelor degree, 2 years) and Doktoral level (Doctoral degree, 2 years). Those who passed all the examination, on major or minor tests, could take the higher degree. If one or two subjects were failed, they were allowed to take the lecture(s) on the higher degree, but required to finish or repeat the fail subjects. The students would get 3 kinds of certificate, Propaedeutic, Bachelor degree (B. Sc), and Sarjana certificate (Ir.). In reality, there were students who quitted the study after getting the Bachelor degree because this certificate was officially accepted in national employment system as in the academy.
Semester system worked until 1978 and the result could be seen more clearly. Since 1978, UGM changed the semester system into credit system, which was brought by the lecturers who finished their doctoral study in the United States. One of the figures who introduced this system was Prof. Dr .Ir. Andi Hakim Nasution from the Faculty of Agriculture IPB. As this new system was in effect, the majors in the Faculty of Forestry increased. The existing three other majors changed their names. Those four majors were the Department of Forest Management, the Department of Silviculture, the Department of Forest Product Technology, and the Department of Forest Resources Conservation.
The Separation from the Faculty of Agriculture
By The Decree of the Minister of College and Science dated 24 August 1963, from the date of 17 August 1963, the Forestry Division was separated from the Faculty of Agriculture. Hence, it was an independent faculty. At the same time, the Bogor branch institution of Universitas Indonesia also stood alone into Institut Pertanian Bogor (Bogor Institute of Agriculture). Also by the Decree, the Faculty of Agriculture and the Faculty of Forestry separated into three faculties, the Faculty of Agriculture, the Faculty of Agriculture Technology, and the Faculty of Forestry. Therefore, the student number which formerly used code P, was started with a new number, by code Kht. The student with the number 1/Kht was Haryanto Yoedodibroto, with the older number …/P.
As an independent faculty, the Faculty of Forestry had three departments which were the Department of Forest Company Economy, the Department of Forest Management and the Department of Forest Product Technology. During that time, the faculty was led by a Dean, who was assisted by two Vice Deans. The person who served as the first Dean was Ir. Soedarwono Hardjosoediro, Vice Dean I was Soenardi, B.Sc.F, and Vice Dean II was Ir. Achmad Sulthoni. The Head of the Department of Forest Company Economy was also Ir. Soedarwono Hardjosoediro, the Head of the Department of Forest Management was Ir. Oemi Hani'in Soeseno, and the Head of the Department of Forest Product Technology was also Soenardi, B.Sc.F.
For training and developing the knowledge, subdivisions were made on each department. In the Department of Forestry Company Economy, there are Statistic and Wood Measurement Subdivision, Mapping and Aerial Photograph Interpretation Subdivision, Forest Product Exploitation Subdivision, Forest Economy Politics Subdivision, Forest Effect and Drainage Basin Treatment Subdivision, Fauna Treatment Subdivision, and Forest Company Plan and Assessment Subdivision. The Department of Forest Management has Silvic Subdivision, Silviculture Subdivision, Tree Improvement Subdivision, Forest Hygiene Subdivision, Phytogeography Subdivision, Phytosociology Subdivision, Floral Tree Subdivision, and Forest Soil Subdivision. The Department of Forest Product Technology has Wood Structure and Properties Subdivision, Wood Drying and Preservation Subdivision, and Forest Product Processing Subdivision.
Since 1962, the number of forestry students was about 100 people. This number remained until 1994 although some students from the year of 1962 to 1968 only finished their Sarjana Muda. However, the number of the graduates increased more and more, especially since 1970. A transformation in the government system, there was a new era of forest management in Indonesia in 1967. Before that, the forest management in Indonesia was only centered on teak wood forest in Java island. After the issue of The Law of Foreign Investment 1967 and followed by The Law of Domestic Investment 1968, the forest management in outside Java was widely open for both foreign and domestic stakeholders. The change in politics made a significant effect to the development of the Faculty of Forestry.
Because of the splendid utilization forest in outside Java by those who have Logging Concession, the Faculty of Forestry became famous. Therefore, the number of high school graduates who wanted to enroll at the faculty of Forestry increased rapidly. From about 1974s, although the quota for new students was only 100 people, the people who interested to enroll were more than 1000. Perhaps, because of the high demand of students, the government wished that the capacity of the Faculty of Forestry be added. From 1980s, the Faculty of Forestry IPB had accepted more than 200 people, while UGM had not increased its capacity yet. Only just in 1995, the number of under graduate colleges increased up to 137 people, in 1996 became 238 people, and in 1997, there were 240 people.
Graduate and Diploma Program
Since 1980, the faculty of Forestry followed the policy of Universitas Gadjah Mada to open graduate program, under the Graduate Program Coordination Universitas Gadjah Mada. At the beginning, its graduates were granted an SU (Sarjana Utama), but later on, it was changed into MS (Magister Sains). At the present, this post graduate title was renamed, according to the major taken. Besides this program, in 1993, the Faculty of Forestry UGM also opened the Diploma Three (D III) program, in corporation with the National Department of Forestry. All of the D.III students had graduated in 1996. Ever since 1996, the D.III for public was opened, not from the employee of the Department of Forestry, and the first number of colleges in the first year was up to 100 people. Besides, since 1985, D.I program was opened, in corporation with the National Department of Forestry.
Now, the faculty of Forestry locates on Agro Street, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta. This complex situates in the eastern of the mini forest “ the Pardiyan forest” that locates in front of Center Building of Administration Office Universitas Gadjah Mada with its hall “Balairung”, that is famous as “kampus biru” or “blue campus”.
At this moment, the buildings of the Faculty of Forestry were 4 units. Unit 1, a three store building, is used as an administrative office, the Dean and Vice Deans’ offices, an academic office, a library, lecturers’ room, classes, the laboratory of Forest Resources Conservation department, and a conference room of the Forest Resources Conservation department. Unit 2, a two store building, is used as Forest Cultivation department lecturers’ room, classes and a laboratory. Unit 3 is used as general lectures rooms and also functions as a big conference hall for the event that would need a room with more than 200 people capacity. Unit 4 is a new six store building. The first until the third floor are used for classes, lecturers’ room, and a laboratory of Forest Product Technology department. The fourth until the sixth floor are used as classes, lectures’ room and a laboratory of Forest Management department. Moreover, there are two floor musholla, a student canteen and a parking lot.
For student accommodation, there are two dormitories, which are Darmaputra dormitory in Baciro complex for male students and Ratnaningsih dormitory for female students in Sagan complex, Yogyakarta. There is also a dorm which is managed by student cooperative on Kaliurang Street KM 5,6. Beside those dormitories, students can look for another boarding house or lodging in people’s houses around UGM, or the boarding houses which is managed by the local government from many provinces. Around UGM campus, there are center public hospital RS. DR. Sardjito, RS. Panti Rapih, and RS. Bethesda. The banks around the campus are BN1 1946 branch UGM, Bank Mandiri, Bank Danamon and Bank Bukopin. There are also students cooperative (KOPMA), lecturers cooperative (KOSUDGAMA), public telephones, post office, campus mosque, hall for student activities and clubs, club house, sport field, children day care, building for art events (Purna Budaya –now, Pusat Kebudayaan Hardjasoemantri-), and many others. For lodging or inn, UGM has Gadjah Mada Guest House and Wisma KAGAMA which can be rent by the public. They locate around the UGM portal. In addition, there are special houses for UGM guest in Sekip and Bulaksumur. A villa in Kaliurang named Wisma Gadjah Mada can also be rent by the public.
City busses serve the transportation from outside the campus/city to campus. Most of city busses pass through the streets near and around the campus area.